This paper reviews how income inequality at the micro and regional levels influenced the inequality in educational outcomes for children and adolescents in China over the past decades. First, we find that the economic condition of the family influences children's and adolescents' education through home educational resources and parental…. More than 60 million children have been left behind in rural China by parents going to work in cities.
Given the effects of child-parent separation CPS on development, this phenomenon has drawn considerable governmental and academic attention in recent years. Outlining developments with reference to relevant studies, this review characterizes…. The objective of the present study was to review the research on the relationship between Chinese adolescents' stress and their academic achievement in the past 20 years.
The reviewed studies revealed a generally negative relationship between Chinese adolescents' academic stress and academic achievement; however, other factors, notably,…. Addressing Autism Spectrum Disorders in China. English language readers rarely get glimpses of the state of autism research in China. Given the seriousness of autism, the population of China, and the potential for theoretically interesting cross-cultural insights, we provide a broad survey of research carried out in China on childhood autism.
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Four themes are considered: etiology, diagnosis,…. Autonomy or self-determination is a crucial construct in understanding adolescents' development and well-being. This paper presents current knowledge about the features of autonomy in learning, parental autonomy support, and psychological control, and their relations with psychological well-being and academic functioning of Chinese adolescents.
Fuchs, Lynn S. In this article, we discuss the approach adopted within the Vanderbilt University Learning Disabilities Innovation Hub, which focuses on students with higher-order comorbidity: students with concurrent difficulty with reading comprehension and word-problem solving. The aim of the Hub's Research Project is to test what we refer to as the….
Understanding Comorbidity between Specific Learning Disabilities. Willcutt, Erik G. Current definitions of specific learning disability SLD identify a heterogeneous population that includes individuals with weaknesses in reading, math, or writing, and these academic difficulties often co-occur in many of the same individuals. Church, Jessica A. The role of executive function EF in the reading process, and in those with reading difficulties, remains unclear. As members of the Texas Center for Learning Disabilities, we review multiple perspectives regarding EF in reading and then summarize some of our recent studies of struggling and typical readers in grades Study 1a found that a….
Strouse, Darcy L. ChildFund International ChildFund is a child-focused International Non-Governmental Organization INGO which, since , has worked with local implementing partners LIPs , government, and other partner organizations to help create the safe environments children need to thrive. The purpose of this commentary is to reflect on the utility and…. Despite the knowledge that quality early childhood development programs, including those that target parental knowledge and behaviors, are essential for ameliorating the negative effects of early-life adversity, robust analyses of their implementation and impact in highly vulnerable settings are scarce.
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To address this knowledge gap, we conducted…. Geuke, Gemma G. The major aim of this manuscript is to bring together two important topics that have recently received much attention in child and adolescent research, albeit separately from each other: single-case experimental designs and statistical mediation analysis. Single-case experimental designs SCEDs are increasingly recognized as a valuable….
Early Child Development in China: Directions in Development - General
This study provides an illustration of a research design complementary to randomized controlled trial to evaluate program effects, namely, participatory peer research PPR. Wadhwa, Mansi; Cook, Thomas D. This chapter highlights the key assumptions underlying Randomized Control Trials RCTs and illustrates them with regard to the practice of RCTs in the realm of child and adolescent development. Given the prominence of RCTs in policy research, we analyze the possible ways in which these assumptions might not be met by single randomized….
In Since Since last 5 years. Since last 10 years. Since last 20 years. Foreign Countries. Child Development. Adolescent Development. Parent Child Relationship. Results of a longitudinal study by Rickard et al. In an experimental design, Martens et al. Participants who had participated in formal music lessons scored significantly better on a verbal long-term memory task when the stimuli were sung than when they were spoken in comparison to those who did not have formal lessons, showing no benefit for either sung or spoken condition.
Short-term memory did not appear to be affected by musical experience.
The five studies reviewed yielded mixed results. One experimental study  showed improved performance of participants who had participated in formal music lessons.
However, generalizability of findings is low by including only participants with Williams syndrome, making the participants a non-representative sample. The remaining four studies, reporting positive or partially positive results, employed quasi-experimental longitudinal designs    . However, in none of these four studies, participants were randomized or matched on potentially influencing variables, decreasing validity of findings. Blinded outcome assessors were used in one study . Two out of the four studies included an active control group  or both an active and passive control group , allowing for a more detailed comparison.
Although studies suggest potential benefits, the methodological limitations do not allow clear conclusions to be drawn about the effect of music and the part s of memory of which music can have an effect on. The impact of music interventions on attention and several executive function skills was reported in seven studies with mixed evidence. One study of 7—12 year-olds Khalil et al. Positive results have also been shown by Moreno et al. Using a cross-sectional design, Zuk et al. Fifteen instrumentally trained children, who started training on average at 5 years and had been studying their instruments on average 5.
In contrast, Roden et al. Children in the music group showed significant increases in information processing speed from T2 to T3. However, the level of significance was only associated with a small effect size. Although both groups improved their visual attention scores over time, these increases were stronger from T1 to T2 and T2 to T3 in children with natural science training as compared to children with music training.
In a quasi-experimental study, Schellenberg  found that, with the exception of digit span, music training was independent of performance on phonological fluency, inhibition, problem solving, and planning and mental flexibility and rule switching. Bugos and Jacobs  found no effect of participation in a 4-month composition program on verbal fluency. Using an intervention design, Janus et al. The one training-specific outcome found was that children in the French group showed broader improvement in visual search than children in the music program.
For verbal fluency, grammatical judgement and visual search, all children performed significantly better after training. Several studies suggested music training may improve various aspects of working memory.
In one quasi-experimental, longitudinal study Roden et al. Results showed significant gains in two out of three components of working memory performance in children who followed the music program for one-and-a-half-years in comparison to children who took part in the science training group.
Positive associations between musical practice and working memory were also reported by Bergman Nutley et al. Portowitz et al.
https://noroi-jusatsu.info/wp-content/2019-12-10/3957-logiciel-espion-tel.php The results of the study of Janus et al. The seven studies reviewed yielded mixed results of the influence of music interventions on attention and other EF skills.
Positive correlations were shown by one study . The remaining six studies were quasi-experimental longitudinal without randomization      . Two of these six studies, reporting positive results, used pseudo random allocation of participants to groups  or matched participants on potentially confounding variables  but only one included an active control group . Two other studies reported mixed and modest results, respectively  . The sample size and the inclusion of an active control group can be considered as strength of one of them .