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The agricultural sector was the most dominant in pre Sudan until , but then its share has declined to the benefit of both services and industries related to the exploitation and export of mineral oil, which boomed for a decade. In , the agricultural sector contributed Almost half of the households in the northern states of pre Sudan were mostly agricultural, and up to 82 percent in Kordofan and Darfur states SCBS, Vast natural pastures and forests support large herds of livestock including cattle, sheep and goats.

The main exported crops are sorghum, cotton, groundnuts, sesame, sugarcane, Arabic gum, fruits and vegetables. Livestock is also important for exports.

Rainfed agriculture covers by far the largest area in Sudan. The area actually cultivated and total production may, however, vary considerably from year to year depending on variability of rainfall.

The rainfed farming system is characterized by a small farm size, labour-intensive cultivation techniques employing hand tools, low input level and poor yields. Crops grown in the rainfed sector include sorghum, millet, sesame, sunflower and groundnuts. Sudan has the largest irrigated area in sub-Saharan Africa and the second largest in the whole of Africa, after Egypt.

Irrigated agriculture has become more and more important over the past few decades as a result of drought and rainfall variability and uncertainty. It remains a central option to boost the economy in general and increase the living standard of the majority of the population. In , despite a record production of over 7. An estimated 4. Food security deteriorated in the last years due to multiple reasons: influx of refugees, poor harvests, restrictions on trade and assistance, conflicts and increased prices.

While frequent droughts led to famine, regular variable rainfall patterns, recurrent conflicts and high food prices result in the most vulnerable people struggling to access enough food FAO, b. The erratic nature of the rainfall and its concentration in a short season places Sudan in a vulnerable situation, especially in rainfed areas. Surface water in Sudan mainly comprises the Nile river system nilotic water and a few other, non-nilotic streams. About 43 percent of the Nile basin lies within Sudan, while 72 percent of Sudan lies in the Nile basin.

The characteristics of the Nile system tributaries are the following: The Blue Nile : The flow of the Blue Nile reflects the seasonality of rainfall over the Ethiopian highlands where the two flow periods are distinct.

South Sudan

The flood period or wet season extends from July to October, with the maximum in August-September, and low flow or dry season from November to June. Therefore the annual Blue Nile hydrograph has a constant bell-shaped pattern, regardless of variation in the annual flow volumes. During the flood period the Blue Nile forms a natural dam that obstructs the flow of the White Nile and consequently floods the area upstream of the confluence. The river has a steep slope and small catchments, and reflects the rainfall over the upper catchments as runoff at Sudan border within one to two days.

Originating in Ethiopia, the river becomes the border between Ethiopia and Eritrea before entering Sudan. The Atbara river is regarded as the only and last tributary joining the Main Nile. This is less than the sum of IRWR and the above water resources flowing into Sudan due to evaporation see below. The major non-nilotic streams are the Mareb-Gash and Baraka in the east of the country, coming from Eritrea, both of which are characterized by large variations in annual flow and heavy silt loads.

The major groundwater formation and basin is the Nubian Sandstone Basin covering a total area of 2. A small portion of the Umm Rwaba aquifer lies also in Sudan. In , three wetlands are Ramsar listed, covering around 2. While it is not known yet what the treaty will be after the splitting of Sudan into South Sudan and Sudan, this will have consequences for both South Sudan and Sudan. Information will be updated as soon as information on a new or updated treaty will become available. The high variability of river flows necessitates storage facilities. After the construction of the High Aswan dam it was no longer needed by Egypt and was officially handed over to the Sudan in A small barrage was constructed on the Rahad river to divert floodwater to the Rahad Agricultural Scheme and to siphon underneath the Dinder river to augment the water supply during the dry season from the Meina Pump Station on the Blue Nile.

The Dal dam on the 2 nd cataract would have a height of m and a capacity of MW. The Shereik dam on the 5 th cataract of the Nile. Non-conventional sources of water are limited in Sudan. However, the desalination of seawater was introduced recently in Port Sudan town. Surface water and groundwater resources are mostly shared with neighbouring countries.

The agreement does not allocate to Ethiopia any rights to use the Nile waters and also still binds Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania and Kenya and bars them from using the Lake Victoria waters. The other riparian countries are still not included in this agreement. The SVP is to help create an enabling environment for action on the ground through building trust and skill, while the SAP is aimed at the delivery of actual development projects involving two or more countries. Projects are selected by individual riparian countries for implementation and submitted to the Council of Ministers of the NBI for approval.

Pre Sudan, Ethiopia and Egypt also adopted a strategy of cooperation in which all projects to be launched on the river should seek the common benefit of all member states and this should be included in accompanying feasibility studies. However, the NBI is intended to be a transitional institution until the Cooperative Framework Agreement CFA negotiations are finalized and a permanent institution created.

Pre Sudan, a traditional ally of Egypt, initially also rejected the agreement, but the new Sudan is now considering its signature due to increasing awareness of the unequal sharing and also hoping for benefits, in particular from the Ethiopian Renaissance dam, expected to be completed in The Democratic Republic of the Congo is also still to decide upon the CFA signature, as well as South Sudan, moreover so since the water contribution of the latter is considerable.

The CFA was put on hold due to the Egyptian revolution of The main non-nilotic streams are also shared with neighbouring countries. For more information on the Lake Chad basin see the Chad and Niger country profiles, and the regional overview for Africa, in particular its Box 2. In addition, Sudan shares also seven transboundary aquifers with neighbouring countries Table 3 for which there is no sharing agreement. The largest groundwater aquifer is the Nubian sandstone aquifer system. Figures for for Sudan have been estimated based on the above figures for pre Sudan, keeping the same total for South Sudan and Sudan together and considering that no essential changes have taken place, that almost all irrigation is located in Sudan Figure 1 , that the population of Sudan is 83 percent of the total population of pre Sudan and that most 75 percent of the industries are located in South Sudan petrol area Table 4.

Water used in Sudan derives almost exclusively from surface water resources. Groundwater is used only in very limited areas, and mainly for municipal water supply, but is of critical importance locally. However, extraction data is inexistent.

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Small water reservoirs fed by rainfall and runoff, also called hafirs , had a crucial role in supplying water for domestic use in villages and to pastoralists in remote areas, in particular in Darfur and Kordofan UNEP, ; WB, Rehabilitation of these structures is currently taking place to provide a safe source of water for herds during dry season FAO, b. Domestic and industrial wastewater is disposed in open pit latrines or ponds. Disputes over water use, particularly between nomadic pastoralists and settled populations, have become inextricably linked to a wider regional conflict.

Irrigation potential was estimated at about 2. Large-scale gravity irrigation started during the British colonial period and the colonial agricultural policy was characterized by the promotion of cotton production in the Nile basin. Irrigation by pumping water began at the beginning of the 20 th Century, substituting traditional flood irrigation and water wheel techniques. Started in and progressively expanded thereafter, in particular with its Managil expansion. The scheme has played an important role in the economic development of Sudan, serving as a major source of foreign exchange earnings and of Government revenue.

It has also contributed to national food security and in generating a livelihood for the estimated 2.

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In the post-colonial period, it was assumed that the only sound way to bring about development would still be through large irrigation developments. The increase in Nile water allocation through the Nile Waters Agreement with Egypt led for example to the construction of the Managil extension of the Gezira scheme and of the New Halfa scheme.

The New Halfa scheme is located on the upper Atbara river in the east of the country. Large-scale irrigated agriculture expanded from 1. The s were a period of rehabilitation, with efforts to improve the performance of the irrigation sub-sector. In addition, there were also four major government-run sugarcane schemes. Only the fifth and largest sugarcane plantation, the Kenana Sugar Company White Nile State , is an international public-private joint venture with the Kuwait Investment Authority and the Saudi Arabian government.

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Transfer of the irrigation management of the main schemes to water user associations started in Crops were previously irrigated by shadufs hand-operated water pump and sequia animal-driven water-wheel , which are now almost entirely replaced by small irrigation pumps UNEP, Traditional irrigation is still practiced on the floodplains of the main Nile downstream of Khartoum, as well as over substantial areas along the White and Blue Nile and the Atbara river.

Irrigation systems in modern irrigation include surface, sprinkler and localized irrigation systems. In spate irrigation, water from the seasonal streams is captured and redirected by diverting structures and canals to flood wide areas of arable land. Actually irrigated area depends on the volume of water carried by the river each year.

The crop grows on residual moisture in the soil and no irrigation is needed. Sometimes two crops are grown in one season. In , surface water was the water source for 96 percent of the total irrigated area land, and the remaining 4 percent were irrigated from groundwater small tubewells. What steps need to be taken to build democratic freedoms in South Sudan?

Economy, agriculture and food security

In South Sudan, the state is very weak. Our institutions are there, but they are not respected. Nowadays, even the president might not know what is going on in the country that he is supposed to run. Actual power-bearers are usually very wealthy, which gives them a huge power advantage in a country where most people are just trying to survive, not even with the bare minimum.

World Report World Report South Sudan | Human Rights Watch

When the generals that head these armies are in a position to pay their soldiers and take care of them, they will remain loyal to them rather than to their country. Our policies and institutions are not in order. We do not have mechanisms to hold office-holders accountable, except to remove them from office. We should have the possibility of holding trials under a martial or criminal court and law, so that everybody understands that the rule of law must be respected.

We need a stronger judiciary, and even maybe establish an institution to enforce accountability of the judiciary. We could start, like they did in Kenya, by looking at each institution one by one, to reinforce them, remove people, or change internal policies or the laws that rule them, as needed. In this context, how do you manage to reach out to and mobilise citizens towards the goals of your campaign? If you speak too much or too loudly, you may face all kinds of repressive tactics. Despite the hostile environment, at Anataban we work and grow out of solidarity.

If numbers are on your side, it becomes harder for them to crush you. We decided to multiply, to become many, and then more, and as a result we became more difficult to deal with.